A Naturally Occurring Acid with Unique Advantages
Fumaric acid is an organic acid widely found in nature. In
humans and other mammals, Fumaric acid is a key intermediate
in the tricarboxylic acid cycle for organic acid biosynthesis
cycle). Fumaric acid is also an essential ingredient
in plant life.
Fumaric acid is the strongest organic food acid in titratable acidity
and in sourness.
synthetically produced Fumaric Acids have the same molecular structure.
Bartek Fumaric Acid is made from N-Butane that is oxidised to Maleic
acid that is then isomerized to Fumaric acid.
Benefits Of Fumaric Acid
Long Lasting Sour Taste at pHs less than 4.5
Fumaric acid's hydrophobic nature results in persistent, long lasting
sourness and flavour impact.
Lower pH with Minimal Sourness at pHs greater than 4.5
In food and beverage products with a pH greater than 4.5, Fumaric
acid decreases the pH with minimal added sourness.
Greater Buffering Capacity at pH 3.0
Fumaric Acid has more buffering capacity than other food acids
at pHs near 3.0 - this is due to its pKa1 and to its low molecular
Anti-microbial Effects at Low pHs
Fumaric acid lowers pH in foods and beverages - this enhances
the effectiveness of anti-microbial ingredients. In addition,
undissociated Fumaric Acid that is present at low pHs has a
bactericidal effect against E.Coli O157:H7.
Improves Dough Machinability
Fumaric acid blocks or breaks gluten disulphide bonds - this
improves dough machinability in wheat flour doughs.
Delayed Action Leavening Acid
Granular Fumaric acid dissolves during baking and generates
carbon dioxide by reaction with sodium bicarbonate. Fumaric
acid has a higher neutralisation value than other delayed action
Fumaric acid absorbs virtually no atmospheric moisture - it
stays dry and free flowing. Dry-mix products will not cake or
harden, even during high humidity storage conditions, when Fumaric
acid is used as the acidulant.
Better Flavour Stability
Fumaric acid does not absorb moisture that degrades flavour
ingredients in dry mix products.
Lower Ingredient Cost
Ingredient cost is reduced when using Fumaric acid for two reasons.
Fumaric acid is stronger than all other organic food acids in
terms of sourness, acid equivalent weight and pH values - therefore,
less can be used. In addition, Fumaric acid is more economical
than other food acids on a cost per unit weight basis.
Lower Packaging Material Cost for Dry
For dry mixes, packaging material cost is decreased due to reduced
moisture barrier requirements and because a smaller package
can be used (the unit weight of the dry mix package can be lowered
because less acidulant is used).
Fumaric acid has been used in food and beverage products since
1946. It is currently used in wheat and corn tortillas, sour dough
and rye breads, refrigerated biscuit doughs, fruit juice and nutraceutical
drinks, gelatin desserts, gelling aids, pie fillings and wine. Food
research shows that Fumaric acid improves quality and reduces costs
of many food and beverage products. It is also used in animal feed.
Fumaric Acid lowers the pH of the tortilla dough, thereby improving
a mold inhibitor's (e.g. calcium propionate) effectiveness. Shelf
life of dry tortilla mixes is extended because Fumaric Acid does
not absorb moisture during storage and distribution. In wheat flour
tortillas, fumaric acid accelerates the cleavage of disulphide bonds
between gluten protein molecules during dough kneading. The result
is more easily machined dough and faster production rates. Added
cost savings are realised since leavening acids can be replaced
with Fumaric acid.
Fumaric acid acts as an instant flavouring agent for rye and sourdough
breads. Fumaric acid is simply added to the dough ingredients during
the dry blending step. Flavour intensity is easily controlled by
the amount of Fumaric acid added to the recipe. In English muffins,
Fumaric acid significantly increases porosity. Dough machinability
is improved and more sourness is provided per unit weight.
Fruit Juice Drinks
Fumaric acid provides more sourness per unit weight than other acidulants
used in fruit juice drinks. This substantially reduces the acidulant
cost. In fruit juice drinks, Fumaric acid provides more buffering
capacity than other acidulants when the pH is near 3.0. Using Fumaric
acid helps to stabilise the pH of a fruit juice drink, which in
turn stabilises colour and flavour.
Fumaric Acid in combination with Sodium Benzoate was shown to have
a bactericidal effect against E.Coli O157:H7 in apple cider at pHs
Fumaric Acid would help juice processors achieve the mandated 5-log
Fumaric Acid can economically acidify wine with no detectable difference
in flavour. The replacement ratio of three pounds of Fumaric acid
to five pounds of Citric acid can significantly reduce acidulant
cost. Fumaric acid also prevents secondary fermentation after bottling
and can act as a clarifier when low concentrations of copper and
iron are present in the wine.
Fumaric acid extends the shelf life of acid coated candies because
it does not absorb moisture during storage and distribution. Maintaining
a low moisture level retards sucrose inversion. Acidulant cost is
also reduced as Fumaric acid provides more sourness per unit weight
than other acidulants used in dry form.
Jellies and Jams
Fumaric acid can cut food acid costs when used as an acidulant for
jams, jellies and preserves. As little as two pounds of Fumaric
acid can be used to replace every three pounds of Citric, Malic
or Tartaric acid. At the 2:3 replacement ratio, Fumaric acid does
not produce significant differences in gel strength or pH.
Alginate Based Desserts
Fumaric acid is an economical acidulant that liberates calcium.
It improves smoothness and optimises setting times. Also, the non-hygroscopicity
of Fumaric acid means that dry dessert mixes remain free flowing,
even in high humidity. Fumaric acid can be added directly to the
dry dessert mix during manufacture without causing degradation of
flavour ingredients because of its non-hygroscopic nature.
Fumaric acid significantly reduces acidulant costs in gelatin desserts.
Depending on the product recipe, each pound of Citric acid can be
replaced with 0.6 to 0.7 pounds of Fumaric acid. Reducing moisture
pick-up improves flavour stability and lengthens shelf life. Fumaric
acid maintains non-caking and free-flowing qualities. By keeping
the moisture content low, Fumaric acid helps to maintain the stability
of flavour components and markedly decreases inversion of sucrose
in the packaged dry mix. It may also be possible to use less expensive
packaging if other moisture-sensitive ingredients are not being
used in the product formulation. Fumaric acid also increases gel
strength, so food processors may reduce normal gelatin content by
In pie fillings, Fumaric acid can be mixed directly with the starch
and sugar ingredients as it is non-hygroscopic. Fumaric acid lowers
costs by reducing the quantity of food acid needed in product formulations.
Fumaric acid also improves smoothness and extends the critical cook
times for optimum gelation.
Egg White Foams
Fumaric acid can promote maximum volume in both egg-white foams
and end products based on egg-white foams. Fumaric acid can replace
the more expensive cream of tartar to control egg-white volume.
With Fumaric acid, egg whites can be overbeaten for as much as double
the customary optimum time. Well suited for continuous flow processes,
Fumaric acid can be added to both liquid and dried egg whites.
Cleaning Agents for Dentures/Bath Salts
The carbon dioxide generating compounds containing NaHCO3, K2CO3
and powdered Fumaric acid can be tableted with other ingredients
to make cleaning agents for dentures and bath salts.
Fumaric acid has proven to be a particularly effective additive
to piglet feed during the post-weaning period. The inclusion of
Fumaric acid and the resultant adjustment of the pH value demonstrate
improved weight gain, food consumption and feed conversion ratio.
Industrial uses of Fumaric acid include:
- Unsaturated Polyester
- Alkyd Resins
- Printing Inks
- Paper Sizing